Pietro Palma M.D. and Paolo Castelnuovo M.D.Chapter 29 p. 320 Correcting the crooked nose from textbook Advanced therapy in Facial Plastic & Reconstructive surgery edited by T. Regan Thomas M.D
Authors classify crooked noses in three basic variations. However, it is important to realize that any of these three categories may be found in various combinations with each other.
Type 1: Single Opposing Convexity/Concavity
The C-shaped and inverted C-shaped noses represent the paradigmatic expression of type 1 deformity. The midnose is invariably involved. Tip-definition point and nasion can be correctly located on the midline axis.
Type 2: Double Opposing Convexity/Concavity
Type 2 crooked nose includes S-shaped and inverted S-shaped. The three framework arches (bony vault, cartilaginous dorsum, and inferior nasal third ) are the most frequently involved with variable combinations of convexity/concavity. Interdomal midpoint and midline rhinion are often out of the midsagittal axis.
Type 3: Laterally Deviated Noses
The typical laterally deviated nose appears straight in terms of alignment of the nasal structures but presents different heights of the two halves. The interdomal midpoint is invariably displaced off center of the midline axis. The angulation may start at the nasion or the rhinion. When the angulation is located at the nasion the halves of all three nasal arches present different heights. Angulation starting at the rhinion implies a straight or near-straight bony pyramid.
Some other major findings which the authors point out are:
- The crooked nose should be considered an anatomical 'three-level unit": skin-soft tissue envelope (SSTE),bony- cartilaginous framework, and internal lining. Each of these 3 layers plays a specific role for making the nose appear crooked.
- Total septal reconstruction of the quadrangular cartilage maybe required in severe cases where there is extensive post traumatic or iatrogenic alteration of the cartilage. According to above authors reshaping techniques under those conditions provides poor long term functional and cosmetic results because the original deformities tend to reoccur.
- Camouflage procedures are used to achieve better symmetry of the nasal contour anatomy &/or emphasis some crucial surface landmarks (rhinion, tip definition points, pronasale, colemellar break, subnasale). Autogenous softly crushed septal cartilage, remnants of the cephalic alar resections, & mature scar tissue are the authors preferred additive camouflage material.
- The poor success rate of septum surgery reported by many studies is probably due to the failure to treat concomitant valve derangement & alterations of the lateral nasal wall. In fact, concomitant surgery on the nasal lateral wall is often required for a satisfactory functional outcome.
- Precise mini-invasive endoscopic procedures on turbinates and ostiomeatal complex produce excellent functional results.
- Conventional osteotomy techniques do not always accomplish what was intended. Double and in special cases, triple osteotomies are necessary to mobilize completely the bony pyramid and change excessive broadness, convexity, or bowing of the nasal lateral walls.
- An often neglected region is the premaxillary area including the inferior nasal spine and the premaxillary wings.
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